Vzorový test Erasmus+

Listening Test – Note completion 

Questions 1-10

Complete the notes below.


Natural building materials

Natural building materials

  • Naturally 1) ________________________, such as:
  • clay
  • rocks
  • sand
  • wood
  • twigs
  • and even leaves


  • Use is typically segmented into trades, such as:
  • carpentry
  • 2)________________________
  • plumbing
  • and roofing work.


Examples of natural building materials

  • Soil, and especially clay
    • provides good thermal mass
    • keeps temperatures at a constant level
    • homes: cool in the summer and warm in winter.
    • holds heat/cold, releasing it over a period of time like 3)____________________
  • Bricks or 4)________________________blocks
    • used frequently in industrialized society: manufactured off site (in brickworks)

transported to building locations

  • Romans: fond of building with brick
  • popular in the mid-18th and 19th centuries: much more 5)________________________than wood

fairly cheap to produce.

  • Sand
    • used with cement (lime): to make mortar for masonry work and 6)________________________.
    • used as a part of the concrete mix.
  • Stone or rock
  • longest lasting building material
  • readily 7)_____________________
  • dense material
  • gives a lot of protection
  • weight and awkwardness
  • hard to keep warm
practical use
  • in most major cities
  • civilizations entirely from stone
  • Egyptian and Aztec pyramids
  • 8)________________________of the Inca civilization


  • Thatch
    • one of the oldest building materials
    • good insulator
  • Wood
    • used for ages in its natural state
    • very flexible under loads
    • keeping strength while 9)________________________
    • very strong when compressed vertically
    • term used for construction purposes: timber

in the United States: lumber

  • main problems: fire risk








Reading Comprehension Test

Read the text and answer the questions below.


A         There are now over 700 million motor vehicles in the world – and the number is rising by more than 40 million each year. The average distance driven by car users is growing too – from 8km a day per person in western Europe in 1965 to 25 km a day in 1995. This dependence on motor vehicles has given rise to major problems, including environmental pollution, depletion of oil resources, traffic congestion and safety.

B          While emissions from new cars are far less harmful than they used to be, city streets and motorways are becoming more crowded than ever, often with older trucks, buses and taxis which emit excessive levels of smoke and fumes. This concentration of vehicles makes air quality in urban areas unpleasant and sometimes dangerous to breathe. Even Moscow has joined the list of capitals afflicted by congestion and traffic fumes. In Mexico City, vehicle pollution is a major health hazard.

C          Until a hundred years ago, most journeys were in the 20km range, the distance conveniently accessible by horse. Heavy freight could only be carried by water or rail. Invention of the motor vehicle brought personal mobility to the masses and made rapid freight delivery possible over a much wider area. In the United Kingdom, about 90 per cent of inland freight is carried by road. The world cannot revert to the horse-drawn wagon. Can it avoid being locked into congested and polluting ways of transporting people and goods?

D         In Europe most cities are still designed for the old modes of transport. Adaptation to the motor car has involved adding ring roads, one-way systems and parking lots. In the United States, more land is assigned to car use than to housing. Urban sprawl means that life without a car is next to impossible. Mass use of motor vehicles has also killed or injured millions of people. Other social effects have been blamed on the car such as alienation and aggressive human behaviour.

E          A 1993 study by the European Federation for Transport and Environment found that car transport is seven times as costly as rail travel in terms of the external social costs it entails – congestion, accidents, pollution, loss of cropland and natural habitats, depletion of oil resources, and so on. Yet cars easily surpass trains or buses as a flexible and convenient mode of personal transport. It is unrealistic to expect people to give up private cars in favour of mass transit.

F          Technical solutions can reduce the pollution problem and increase the fuelled efficiency of engines. But fuel consumption and exhaust emissions depend on which cars are preferred by customers and how they are driven. Many people buy larger cars than they need for daily purposes or waste fuel by driving aggressively. Besides, global car use is increasing at a faster rate than the improvement in emissions and fuel efficiency which technology is now making possible.

G         Some argue that the only long-term solution is to design cities and neighbourhoods so that car journeys are not necessary – all essential services being located within walking distance or easily accessible by public transport. Not only would this save energy and cut carbon dioxide emissions, it would also enhance the quality of community life, putting the emphasis on people instead of cars.

H         One such approach that has been put forward is called the 15-minute city strategy. The 15-minute city integrates a set of four complementary, overlapping principles for people-centred urban development, which essentially means reconnecting residential districts to businesses, retail, industry and entertainment areas.  It involves trying to build an urban model that allows everyone, in every neighbourhood, to meet most of their daily needs within a short walk or bike ride of their home. It creates a ‘human-scale’ city composed of vibrant, people-friendly, ‘complete’ neighbourhoods, connected by quality public transport and cycling infrastructure for the longer trips that residents want or need to make. It means decentralising city life and services and injecting more life into local areas across the city.

I           Good local government is already bringing this about in some places, for example the city of Barcelona is developing ‘superblocks’ that modify road networks within 400 square metre blocks to improve the availability and quality of public space for leisure and community activities, as well as for pedestrians and cyclists. Or in Paris they are implementing a ‘hyper-proximity’ approach which includes installing a cycle path on every street and bridge ‒ enabled in part by turning over 70% of on-street car-parking space to other uses – increasing office space and co-working hubs in neighbourhoods that lack them, expanding the uses of infrastructure and buildings outside standard hours, encouraging people to use their local shops and creating small parks in school playgrounds that would be open to local people outside of school hours to fight the city’s lack of public green space.

J          However, few democratic communities are blessed with the vision – and the capital – to make such profound changes in modern lifestyles. Therefore, a more likely scenario seems to be a combination of mass transit systems for travel into and around cities, with small ‘low emission’ cars for urban use and larger hybrid or lean burn cars for use elsewhere. Electronically tolled highways might be used to ensure that drivers pay charges geared to actual road use. Better integration of transport systems is also highly desirable – and made more feasible by modern computers. But yet again these are solutions for countries which can afford them. In most developing countries, old cars and old technologies continue to predominate

Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1: Matching headings.

Questions 1-6

The text has ten paragraphs A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-J, next to sentence 1-6.

You need only write ONE letter for each answer.

  1. specific data showing the increase in both car usage and span _______
  2. a concrete manifestation of a new approach_______
  3. the rapid expansion of the geographic extent of cities and towns, leading to car dependence_______
  4. examples of the different modes of cargo transportation_______
  5. two factor that are influenced by driving skills and car type_______
  6. the question of the financial viability of implementing solutions worldwide _______


Exercise 2: Sentence completion.

Questions 7-12

Complete the following statements using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS. Use words taken directly from the reading, making sure they grammatically fit into the sentence. Put your choice into the gaps provided.

  1. Due to the high level of vehicles, the air pollution ________________________ is disagreeable and can even be hazardous to inhale.
  2. ________________________cars has additionally led to countless accidents resulting in injuries and death.
  3. A research conducted in Europe has proven that travelling by rail is ________________________ cheaper than by car with regard to the social expenses that are involved.
  4. It is believed by some that in the long run the only way to succeed is to construct ________________________ in such a way that travelling by car is not needed.
  5. The 15-minute city strategy sets out to ________________________ and services and make the communities throughout the city livelier.
  6. ________________________ motorways can perhaps guarantee that the fees being paid are really in line with factual road use.


Use of English Test

Exercise 1: Open Cloze

Questions 1-8

For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.

Use only ONE word in each gap.


I have just graduated _______ (1) university and I went for my first job interview to a famous architectural studio last week. As I specialised in bio-architecture I really wanted to get _______ (2) job, but I was asked _______ (3)  lot of questions and I got nervous and couldn’t answer any of _______ (4). I´m sure I could have got the job if I hadn’t been _______ (5) nervous! And next week I’m going for another interview and I´m already terrified, so I’m worried I won’t be able to answer them again!  I just can’t help myself! Unless I’m able to calm down, I know I will never get the job of my dreams and will never become a green architect! When I was at university I never used to behave like   _______ (6). I was always able to concentrate on the task and pass the exam. During my student years I also seemed to be the  _______ (7) student that could pass exams without worrying too much. Once, during the first year of study I was even able to joke before the exam. That’s _______ (8) this current situation is so frustrating for me!


Exercise 2: Word Formation

Questions 1-8

For questions 1-8, use the word in CAPITALS to form a word that fits in the gap.

For each question, write your answer in the gap.


How can we orientate in (1, KNOW) landscape and find our way? The answer is obvious: these days everyone has got a GPS receiver, either (2, MOUNT) in the smart phone or in the car. These devices are very useful, but are not a complete (3, REPLACE) for the knowledge of the basics of orientation with a compass and a map. And always remember that a GPS unit is a (4, FRAGILITY), battery powered device that can fail or be easily damaged. Never solely rely on such a piece of equipment.

The basics of compass (5, USE) are surprisingly simple and can be mastered quickly. Essentially a compass is nothing more than a magnetic needle, floating in a liquid, and enclosed in a (6, CIRCLE) casing, responding to the Earth’s magnetic field (7, CONSEQUENCE) revealing directions. To be truly strong at orienteering and navigation/navigating, one must become familiar with maps and the (8, VALUE) information they contain.


Exercise 3: Key Word Transformation

Questions 1-15

Complete the sentence so that it has a similar meaning. DO NOT CHANGE THE WORD GIVEN.

You must use between TWO and SIX words, including the word given.


  1. You must never let anyone use your Identity Card.


Under _________________________ let anyone else use your identity card.

  1. The football club is now being run by an experienced accountant.


An experienced accountant ____________________ running of the football club.

  1. If he doesn’t get that job, who knows what he’ll do!


If he doesn’t get that job, __________________ what he’ll do!

  1. It’s possible that the burglars got into the building by forcing open a fire exit.


The burglars may _____________by forcing open a fire exit.

  1. Many people believe that Edison has the ability to become world judo champion.


Many people believe that Edison ___________________ the world championship in judo.

  1. I was disappointed to hear that Leo had decided not to play basketball any more.


Leo’s decision to __________________ as a disappointment to me.

  1. He thinks his friends do not appreciate him.


He dislikes __________________ by his friends.

  1. My passport needs renewing because I´m going abroad this summer.


I need ___________________________ because I´m going abroad this summer.

  1. Could I ask you if you’d mind looking after my dog while I’m away on holiday?


I _______________ willing to look after my dog while I’m away on holiday?

  1. Repairing that old computer is pointless in my view.


I can _________________ that old computer being repaired.

  1. Modern farming methods can be negatively affected by the environment.


Modern farming methods can _________________________ the environment.

  1. The Project Manager coordinate a large number of complex activities.


The Project Manager _________________________ a large number of complex activities.

  1. The Site Manager considers safety at all times.


The Site Manager must _________________________ at all times.

  1. Local people are annoyed about the height of the building.


For local people _________________________ the height of the building.

  1. The accountant requires more information on the invoices.


There is _________________________ more information on the invoices.


Writing Test  – Tasks

CHOOSE ONE of the following tasks (1. or 2) and write your text CLEARLY on the next page.

Your writing must be a between 150 – 175 words long. Your writing must be in a style and format / structure appropriate to your choice (1 or 2). Your writing should be relevant, clearly communicated, well-organised, well-presented.

TASK 1 (an academic-style text):

Topic: Hydraulic Engineering – How electricity is generated in a hydroelectric power station

The diagram below shows how electricity is generated in a hydroelectric power station. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features in terms of the process, time stages, possible location and effectivity. Make comparisons where relevant and give a concrete example such   a structure.


TASK 2 (a letter of application):

Letter of application – Applying for a university course

You have read the following information from a British university, and have decided to apply for a course:

The university welcomes applications to all its courses from overseas students. Please write to the Admissions Officer.

Write a letter of application to the Admissions Officer. Your letter must include:

  • Details of the course you wish to apply for and why
  • An outline of your qualifications
  • any other relevant information you feel is necessary